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Herman Melville’s Moby Dick is certainly one of the greatest works of literature in English or any other language. It gives up more meaning on every reading. And Moby Dick seems to be in the news a lot these days. Last week, Karl Rove insisted that he was the great white whale. Rove is a smart fellow, but I frankly have my doubts as to whether he’s actually read Moby Dick.
But perhaps to demonstrate just how universal these images are, look at this interview in today’s Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Stefan Aust, the author of The Baader Meinhof Complex, a work which is now established as the standard treatment of the German radical phenomenon that cast a shadow across Germany in the seventies and eighties, comes to the core of the story–and suddenly we find ourselves engaged with Moby Dick.
The Baader Meinhof days are getting a fresh examination in Germany today, as one by one the members of the gang are completing their prison terms and being released. The full story of the radical left gangs, whose assassinations and robberies cast a cloud of terror across Germany thirty years ago, has not been told. There are many open questions, notably including who funded and sheltered these young terrorists during their sojourn in the East, and why.
In any event, however, Aust explains how each of the members of the gang took a name from Herman Melville’s masterwork—and why.
Q: In the language of the RAF [Rote Armee Faktion] the state was not just “the pigs,” but also Leviathan, the Great White Whale, Moby Dick. Why did the RAF members use code names taken from Moby Dick?
A: Gudrun Ensslin had this idea, in fact she thought up code names for the group members, in order to mislead those who were conducting surveillance. She took almost all the names from Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick. The demonic, mono-maniacally crazy captain Ahab meant Baader, Starbuck was used for Holger Meins, the Carpenter for Jan-Carl Raspe, Quiqueg for Gerhard Müller, Bildad for Horst Mahler, Smutje for Ensslin herself. The whale Moby Dick, who appears in the book as a parable, a deeply coded complex of symbols, was taken yet again as a code. The whale is Leviathan, and Leviathan is a symbol for the state, a state whose papier mâché mask of deceptive appearances the RAF was committed to smashing. “For by Art is created that great Leviathan, called a Common-Wealth, or State (in latine, civitas), which is but an artificiall Man,” that’s the opening sentence of Hobbes’s Leviathan, which is quoted in Melville’s Moby Dick. This Leviathan-State, this white whale, was the object of the terrorists’ pursuit. That’s why this was an extremely appropriate parable for what the terrorists did. The figures that appear in Moby Dick correspond in fact very closely to the individual figures of the RAF.
That gives us two competitors for the starring role of Moby Dick: Karl Rove and the capitalist state that flourished in West Germany thirty years ago. With all respect to Ms. Ensslin and her impressive knowledge of American literature, Rove is a far closer physical approximation.
More from Scott Horton:
Conversation — March 30, 2016, 3:44 pm
Joseph Hickman discusses his new book, The Burn Pits, which tells the story of thousands of U.S. soldiers who, after returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, have developed rare cancers and respiratory diseases.
In Havana, the past year has been marked by a parade of bold-faced names from the north — John Kerry reopening the United States Embassy; Andrew Cuomo bringing a delegation of American business leaders; celebrities ranging from Joe Torre, traveling on behalf of Major League Baseball to oversee an exhibition game between the Tampa Bay Rays and the Cuban national team, to Jimmy Buffett, said to be considering opening one of his Margaritaville restaurants there. All this culminated with a three-day trip in March by Barack Obama, the first American president to visit Cuba since Calvin Coolidge in 1928. But to those who know the city well, perhaps nothing said as much about the transformation of political relations between the United States and Cuba that began in December 2014 as a concert in the Tribuna Antiimperialista.
Chances that a Republican man believes that “poor people have hard lives”:
A school in South Korea was planning to deploy a robot to protect students from unwanted seductions.
Nuremberg’s Neues Museum filed a criminal complaint against a 91-year-old woman who completed a crossword puzzle that was in fact a $116,000 piece of avant-garde Danish art.
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“Matt was happy enough to sustain himself on the detritus of a world he saw as careening toward self-destruction, and equally happy to scam a government he despised. 'I’m glad everyone’s so wasteful,' he told me. 'It supports my lifestyle.'”