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The extra-mental universal constitutes the common nature of the world (natura communis), whereas there is also a principle of individuation, namely “thisness” (hæcceitas). The common nature is common in that it is indifferent to its existence simultaneously in any number of individuals. But it has extra-mental existence only in the particular things in which it exists, and in them it is always contracted by the principle of hæcceitas. So the common nature humanity exists in both Socrates and Plato, although in Socrates it is made individual by Socrates’s hæcceitas and in Plato by Plato’s hæcceitas. The humanity-of-Socrates is individual and non-repeatable, as is the humanity-of-Plato; yet humanity itself is common and repeatable, and it is ontologically prior to any particular exemplification of it. And hence we may only venture to say on the basis of the totality of humankind what constitutes the human aspect of the common nature.
–Johannes Duns Scotus, Ordinatio lib. 2, d. 3, pars 1 (ca. 1300 CE)
More from Scott Horton:
Six Questions — October 18, 2014, 8:00 pm
Nathaniel Raymond on CIA interrogation techniques.
Mark Denbeaux on the NCIS cover-up of three “suicides” at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp
Acreage of a Christian nudist colony under development in Florida:
Florida’s wildlife officials decided to remove the manatee, which has a mild taste that readily adapts to recipes for beef, from the state’s endangered-species list.
A 64-year-old mother and her 44-year-old son were arrested for running a gang that stole more than $100,000 worth of toothbrushes from Publix, Walmart, Walgreens, and CVS stores in Florida.
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