No Comment, Quotation — May 30, 2009, 6:08 am

Kant – The Crooked Wood of Humankind

seasons8

Jeder derselben will immer seine Freiheit mißbrauchen, wenn er Keinen über sich hat, der nach den Gesetzen über ihn Gewalt ausübt. Das höchste Oberhaupt soll aber gerecht für sich selbst, und doch ein Mensch sein. Diese Aufgabe ist daher die schwerste unter allen; ja ihre vollkommene Auflösung ist unmöglich; aus so krummen Holze, als woraus der Mensch gemacht ist, kann nichts ganz Gerades gezimmert werden. Nur die Annäherung zu dieser Idee ist uns von der Natur auferlegt.

Each of them will always abuse his freedom if he has none above him who exercises power in accord with the laws. The highest ruler should be just in himself, and still be a human. This task is therefore the hardest of all; indeed, its complete solution is impossible, for from such crooked wood as a human is made can nothing quite straight ever be fashioned. Only the approximation of this idea is imposed upon us by nature.

Immanuel Kant, Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht, 6. Satz (1784) in Sämtliche Werke in sechs Bänden, vol. 1, p. 230 (Großherzog Wilhelm Ernst ed. 1921)(S.H. transl.)


There was a time when philosophers walked in the woods and saw there a metaphor for the development of humanity. Kant’s view of the “crooked timber” of humankind has gotten a good deal of mileage since Isaiah Berlin popularized it, taking it as the name for one of his most interesting collections of essays, and cleaning up the translation of a passage which is awkwardly structured (above my own effort, with a few more refinements). The phrase is actually close to a throw-away contained in the sixth thesis of the Idea for a General History from a Cosmopolitan Perspective. The key notion of the thesis is actually better reflected in the prior sentence: Kant believes that humans need a master; that the species itself benefits from this model. To balance this he points to the need for political institutions to check the assertion of excessive powers by those in authority. (Only five years later, James Madison makes the same essential points in Federalist No. 51. “If men were angels,” he writes, “no government would be necessary.”) But Berlin is right about the importance of the image of crooked wood—it shows us that Kant may be an idealist in a sense but he is very skeptical about the perfectability of individual humans. At some points he looks suspiciously like a utopianist, but examined more closely, he is not. Perfection is not, by his thinking, for individual humans. It may be something aspirational for the human species, over a vast expanse of time, perhaps. This view is very effectively presented by the image of trees as the essence of human potential. Call it the arboreal theory of human development.

Certainly this image isn’t just Kant’s; in fact I suspect he borrowed it from a writer he loved (and loved to criticize), Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He opens Émile, his book on education, with these words: “Tout est bien, sortant des mains de l’auteur des choses: tout dégénére entre les mains de l’homme. Il force une terre à nourir les productions d’une autre, un arbre à porter les fruits d’un autre… Il ne veut tel que l’a fait la nature, pas même l’homme… il le faut contourner à sa mode comme un arbre de son jardin.” (“Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the author of all things; everything degenerates in the hands of man. He forces one soil to nourish the products of another, one tree to bear the fruit of another… He wants nothing as nature made it, not even man; for him … man must be fashioned in keeping with his fancy like a tree in his garden.”) A little later, Rousseau is quoting Fontenelle’s discussion of the progress of humanity from classical antiquity to modern times—the question, Fontenelle writes, is whether the trees are the same. So Rousseau is quite taken with the metaphor—humanity as timber. And even after Kant’s piece ran, his critics picked it up. Herder, a Kant student and admirer, was disturbed by the sixth thesis, and its suggestion that man was born to a yoke, but he was taken by the metaphor of timber. In the eighth book of his Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1785), Herder takes Kant’s arboreal metaphor and throws it back at him: “Kein Baum soll, so viel möglich, dem andern die Luft nehmen, damit dieser ein Zwerg bleibe oder um einen freien Atembruch zu genießen, sich zum elenden Krüppel beuge. Eignen Platz soll er finden, damit er duch eignen Trieb Wurzelaus in die Höhe steige und eine blühende Krone treibe.” (“As far as it may be, no tree is permitted to deprive another of air, so as to render it a stunted dwarf, or force it to become a crooked cripple, that it may breathe with more freedom. Each has its place allotted it, that it may ascend from its root by its own impulse, and raise its flourishing head.”) Herder’s forest is a beautiful thing, of course–but it doesn’t seem to have much to do with nature.

Listen to Johann Sebastian Bach’s Goldberg Variations (BWV 988) (1741) in a 1982 recording by Glenn Gould. Bach presents an aria for keyboard with thirty variations, but his variations do not follow the melody originally presented. Rather he builds from the bass line, following the style known as a “ground” or a chaconne. Bach pursues perfection in thirty steps, but perfection is not achieved with the final step—it is the entire process which constitutes the patient approximation of an idea, as Kant writes in the quoted passage. The inimitable Glenn Gould has approached this work as an act of devotion. Listen carefully to the recording, and you will hear Gould speaking to himself as he winds his way through the variations. My apologies for the abrupt starts and stops that come from forcing the material into YouTube segments in mid-variation.

““

Share
Single Page

More from Scott Horton:

From the April 2015 issue

Company Men

Torture, treachery, and the CIA

Six Questions October 18, 2014, 8:00 pm

The APA Grapples with Its Torture Demons: Six Questions for Nathaniel Raymond

Nathaniel Raymond on CIA interrogation techniques.

No Comment, Six Questions June 4, 2014, 8:00 am

Uncovering the Cover Ups: Death Camp in Delta

Mark Denbeaux on the NCIS cover-up of three “suicides” at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp

Get access to 165 years of
Harper’s for only $45.99

United States Canada

CATEGORIES

THE CURRENT ISSUE

June 2015

Loitering With Intent

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

A Polite Coup

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

Findings

What Went Wrong

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

Shooting Down Man the Hunter

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

view Table Content

FEATURED ON HARPERS.ORG

Article
Legends of the Lost·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

“A bond with reality has gone, and sometimes you wonder whether that fosters our feeling that movies are a fleeting art.”
Photograph by Alexander Perrelli
Article
What Went Wrong·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

“In the seventh year of his presidency, Barack Obama was presenting himself as a politician who followed the path of least resistance. This is a disturbing confession.”
Photograph by Pete Souza
Article
Surviving a Failed Pregnancy·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

“If this woman — who spent her days studying gray screens for early signs of gestation — could not see my pregnancy, what were the chances that anyone else would?”
Illustration by Leigh Wells
Article
Interesting Facts·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

“My husband is forty-six. I am forty-five. He does not think that, in my forties, after cancer, chemotherapy, and chemically induced menopause, I can get pregnant again, but sisters, I know my womb. It’s proven.”
Photograph by McNair Evans
Post
Kid Chocolate’s Place·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

“Cuban eyes often look close to tears.”
Illustration by the author

Number of British women killed last fall by lightning conducted through their underwire bras:

2

British women wear heels for fifty-one years on average, from the ages of twelve to sixty-three.

Thousands of employees of McDonald’s protested outside the company’s headquarters near Chicago, demanding their wages be increased to $15 per hour. “I can’t afford any shoes,” said one employee in attendance, “and I want Versace heels.”

Subscribe to the Weekly Review newsletter. Don’t worry, we won’t sell your email address!

HARPER’S FINEST

Subways Are for Sleeping

By

“Shelby is waiting for something. He himself does not know what it is. When it comes he will either go back into the world from which he came, or sink out of sight in the morass of alcoholism or despair that has engulfed other vagrants.”

Subscribe Today