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If powers be necessary, apparent danger is not a sufficient reason against conceding them. He has suggested that licentiousness has seldom produced the loss of liberty; but that the tyranny of rulers has almost always effected it. Since the general civilization of mankind, I believe there are more instances of the abridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power, than by violent and sudden usurpations; but, on a candid examination of history, we shall find that turbulence, violence, and abuse of power, by the majority trampling on the rights of the minority, have produced factions and commotions, which, in republics, have, more frequently than any other cause, produced despotism. If we go over the whole history of ancient and modern republics, we shall find their destruction to have generally resulted from those causes. If we consider the peculiar situation of the United States, and what are the sources of that diversity of sentiment which pervades its inhabitants, we shall find great danger to fear that the same causes may terminate here in the same fatal effects which they produced in those republics. This danger ought to be wisely guarded against.
–James Madison, Remarks to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, June 6, 1788
Listen to the Piano Trio No. 25 in G Major (the “Gypsy”)(1795) by Franz Joseph Haydn in a performance by Alfred Denis Cortot, piano; Jacques Thibaud, violin; Pablo Casals, cello:
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Conversation — August 5, 2016, 12:08 pm
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Joseph Hickman discusses his new book, The Burn Pits, which tells the story of thousands of U.S. soldiers who, after returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, have developed rare cancers and respiratory diseases.
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Jerry F. Hough, Duke University (Durham, N.C.), Timothy Colton, Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.), and Susan Goodrich Lehmann, Columbia University (N.Y.C.)
African elephants can distinguish the gender, age, and ethnicity of a human speaker from voice alone.
Three bodies were tossed from a low-flying plane in the Sinaloa state of Mexico.
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"It is an interesting and somewhat macabre parlor game to play at a large gathering of one’s acquaintances: to speculate who in a showdown would go Nazi. By now, I think I know. I have gone through the experience many times—in Germany, in Austria, and in France. I have come to know the types: the born Nazis, the Nazis whom democracy itself has created, the certain-to-be fellow-travelers. And I also know those who never, under any conceivable circumstances, would become Nazis."