No Comment, Quotation — January 13, 2012, 11:38 am

Donne: An Anatomy of the World

studies
And new philosophy calls all in doubt,
The element of fire is quite put out,
The sun is lost, and th’ earth, and no man’s wit
Can well direct him where to look for it.
And freely men confess that this world’s spent,
When in the planets and the firmament
They seek so many new; they see that this
Is crumbled out again to his atomies.
‘Tis all in pieces, all coherence gone,
All just supply, and all relation;
Prince, subject, father, son, are things forgot,
For every man alone thinks he hath got
To be a phoenix, and that then can be
None of that kind, of which he is, but he.
This is the world’s condition now, and now
She that should all parts to reunion bow,
She that had all magnetic force alone,
To draw, and fasten sund’red parts in one;
She whom wise nature had invented then
When she observ’d that every sort of men
Did in their voyage in this world’s sea stray,
And needed a new compass for their way;
She that was best and first original
Of all fair copies, and the general
Steward to fate; she whose rich eyes and breast
Gilt the West Indies, and perfum’d the East;
Whose having breath’d in this world, did bestow
Spice on those Isles, and bade them still smell so,
And that rich India which doth gold inter,
Is but as single money, coin’d from her;
She to whom this world must it self refer,
As suburbs or the microcosm of her,
She, she is dead; she’s dead: when thou know’st this,
Thou know’st how lame a cripple this world is
 

John Donne, conclusion from An Anatomy of the World, Wherein, by occasion of the untimely death of Mistress Elizabeth Drury, the frailty and the decay of this whole world is represented. The First Anniversary (1611)


There comes a point in the poetical life of John Donne when the satirical, love-obsessed, fashionably depressed young man gives way to the solipsistic cleric and philosopher. This seems to happen right around the time of this poem, the “First Anniversary,” written for Donne’s wealthy patron, Sir Robert Drury. The poem marks the death of Drury’s beloved daughter Elizabeth, who passed away in December 1610 at the age of fourteen. On the surface, it is about the dark world her departure left for her loved ones. Donne contrasts this world with the one that continues about its business, not noticing Elizabeth’s passing—a world that offends the aggrieved. His commemoration of tragic loss now seems a bit clichéd, but its conceit is brilliant: it is not the death of Elizabeth we mark, but the death of the world. Surely Donne means this in a philosophic sense—the sense of Heraclitus, who taught that one cannot step into the same river twice—as well as in a Christian sense.

Yet, as with so much of Donne’s work, the poem contains many layers of meaning. Most are related more to Donne and his life than to Elizabeth. He is, after all, the poem’s voice. It is the transformation of his world we are examining. And indeed we know, not simply from this poem, that his life was being transformed; that his way of relating to the world was evolving. The author of slyly erotic poetry is fading away. Another Donne is coming in his place.

Some of this transformation was related to the religious politics of his day. Donne’s family was devoutly Catholic. His brother Henry was arrested and brutally tortured over his suspected links to a Catholic insurrection, and once harbored a Catholic priest, which was then regarded as an act of treason. He died a gruesome death from bubonic plague at Newgate Prison. The experience affected Donne deeply. He later came under intense pressure to distance himself from his Catholicism, and then to take orders as an Anglican. Donne could have ignored this pressure only at great peril, since it came directly from the king and senior court officials (note this curious language in the poem: “All just supply, and all relation;/ Prince, subject”). Ultimately, he succumbed, writing anti-Catholic tracts and taking Anglican orders. From John Donne, Catholic, occasional poet, and minor lawyer, emerged John Donne, Anglican divine.

These facts surely help us better understand the words “new philosophy calls all in doubt,/ The element of fire is quite put out.” The “new philosophy” becomes Protestantism, the force of the Reformation, the force that shattered Donne’s world, and the force he embraced in order to survive (“For every man alone thinks he hath got/ To be a phoenix”). But it is also a new spirit of inquiry, a love of science, a rejection of the old constraints of dogma. It is the new world being born in England, one filled with new tensions and conflicts. Donne’s attitude toward this transformation is at once pained and ambivalent: “’Tis all in pieces, all coherence gone,” he writes. Hardly the words of a zealous convert, but nevertheless those of a man treading a new path, uncertain where it will lead. They might also be read as prophesying a world to come: England, on the path to civil war.

What, in the end, is Donne’s “Anatomy of the World”? Is it an effort to provide solace? Or is it a work filled with sorrow for a world extinguished, and with joy and foreboding about the world that has taken its place? “She, she… she” he writes, in an odd refrain found also in the lyrics of a John Dowland song popular in Donne’s time (posted below). But this “she” is more than Elizabeth, and more even than a female archetype. For Donne sees in human history a long chain of worlds shattered and replaced, of men and women born and remade, of life everlasting and transfigured. It is a powerful and solemn vision.


Listen to Glenn Gould perform Orlando Gibbons’s Fantasy in C Major, composed around 1612.

Listen to John Dowland’s “Say Love, If Ever Thou Didst Find,” from the Third and Last Booke of Songs or Aires (1603), here in a performance by Anthony Rooley and The Consort of Musicke:

Share
Single Page

More from Scott Horton:

Conversation August 5, 2016, 12:08 pm

Lincoln’s Party

Sidney Blumenthal on the origins of the Republican Party, the fallout from Clinton’s emails, and his new biography of Abraham Lincoln

Conversation March 30, 2016, 3:44 pm

Burn Pits

Joseph Hickman discusses his new book, The Burn Pits, which tells the story of thousands of U.S. soldiers who, after returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, have developed rare cancers and respiratory diseases.

Context, No Comment August 28, 2015, 12:16 pm

Beltway Secrecy

In five easy lessons

Get access to 168 years of
Harper’s for only $45.99

United States Canada

CATEGORIES

THE CURRENT ISSUE

November 2018

Rebirth of a Nation

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

The Tragedy of Ted Cruz

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

view Table Content

FEATURED ON HARPERS.ORG

Article
Rebirth of a Nation·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

Donald Trump’s presidency signals a profound but inchoate realignment of American politics. On the one hand, his administration may represent the consolidation of minority control by a Republican-dominated Senate under the leadership of a president who came to office after losing the popular vote by almost 3 million ballots. Such an imbalance of power could lead to a second civil war—indeed, the nation’s first and only great fraternal conflagration was sparked off in part for precisely this reason. On the other hand, Trump’s reign may be merely an interregnum, in which the old white power structure of the Republican Party is dying and a new oppositional coalition struggles to be born.

Illustration by Taylor Callery (detail)
Article
Blood Money·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

Over the past three years, the city of South Tucson, Arizona, a largely Latino enclave nestled inside metropolitan Tucson, came close to abolishing its fire and police departments. It did sell off the library and cut back fire-truck crews from four to three people—whereupon two thirds of the fire department quit—and slashed the police force to just sixteen employees. “We’re a small city, just one square mile, surrounded by a larger city,” the finance director, Lourdes Aguirre, explained to me. “We have small-town dollars and big-city problems.”

Illustration by John Ritter (detail)
Article
The Tragedy of Ted Cruz·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

When I saw Ted Cruz speak, in early August, it was at Underwood’s Cafeteria in Brownwood. He was on a weeklong swing through rural central Texas, hitting small towns and military bases that ensured him friendly, if not always entirely enthusiastic, crowds. In Brownwood, some in the audience of two hundred were still nibbling on peach cobbler as Cruz began with an anecdote about his win in a charity basketball game against ABC’s late-night host Jimmy Kimmel. They rewarded him with smug chuckles when he pointed out that “Hollywood celebrities” would be hurting over the defeat “for the next fifty years.” His pitch for votes was still an off-the-rack Tea Party platform, complete with warnings about the menace of creeping progressivism, delivered at a slightly mechanical pace but with lots of punch. The woman next to me remarked, “This is the fire in the gut! Like he had the first time!” referring to Cruz’s successful long-shot run in the 2011 Texas Republican Senate primary. And it’s true—the speech was exactly like one Cruz would have delivered in 2011, right down to one specific detail: he never mentioned Donald Trump by name.

Cruz recited almost verbatim the same things Trump lists as the administration’s accomplishments: the new tax legislation, reduced African-American unemployment, repeal of the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate, and Neil Gorsuch’s appointment to the Supreme Court. But, in a mirror image of those in the #Resistance who refuse to ennoble Trump with the title “president,” Cruz only called him that.

Photograph of Ted Cruz © Ben Helton (detail)
Article
Wrong Object·

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

H

e is a nondescript man.

I’d never used that adjective about a client. Not until this one. My seventeenth. He’d requested an evening time and came Tuesdays at six-thirty. For months he didn’t tell me what he did.

The first session I said what I often said to begin: How can I help you?

I still think of what I do as a helping profession. And I liked the way the phrase echoed down my years; in my first job I’d been a salesgirl at a department store counter.

I want to work on my marriage, he said. I’m the problem.

His complaint was familiar. But I preferred a self-critical patient to a blamer.

It’s me, he said. My wife is a thoroughly good person.

Yawn, I thought, but said, Tell me more.

I don’t feel what I should for her.

What do you feel?

Photograph © Joseph S. Giacalone (detail)

Chances an American who voted for Ross Perot in 1992 can no longer recall having done so:

1 in 2

People tend to believe that God believes what they believe.

Nikki Haley resigns; Jamal Khashoggi murdered; Kanye visits the White House

Subscribe to the Weekly Review newsletter. Don’t worry, we won’t sell your email address!

HARPER’S FINEST

Happiness Is a Worn Gun

By

Illustration by Stan Fellows

Illustration by Stan Fellows

“Nowadays, most states let just about anybody who wants a concealed-handgun permit have one; in seventeen states, you don’t even have to be a resident. Nobody knows exactly how many Americans carry guns, because not all states release their numbers, and even if they did, not all permit holders carry all the time. But it’s safe to assume that as many as 6 million Americans are walking around with firearms under their clothes.”

Subscribe Today