An interdisciplinary team described a history of European animal trials by secular and ecclesiastical courts, including a sixteenth-century case against French rats, whose public defender, upon the rats' failure to appear, remonstrated with the court: "What can be more unjust than these general proscriptions, which overwhelm whole families in one common ruin, which visit the crime of parents on the children, which destroy indiscriminately those whom tender years or infirmity render equally incapable of offending?" | Harper's Magazine

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An interdisciplinary team described a history of European animal trials by secular and ecclesiastical courts, including a sixteenth-century case against French rats, whose public defender, upon the rats’ failure to appear, remonstrated with the court: “What can be more unjust than these general proscriptions, which overwhelm whole families in one common ruin, which visit the crime of parents on the children, which destroy indiscriminately those whom tender years or infirmity render equally incapable of offending?”

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An interdisciplinary team described a history of European animal trials by secular and ecclesiastical courts, including a sixteenth-century case against French rats, whose public defender, upon the rats’ failure to appear, remonstrated with the court: “What can be more unjust than these general proscriptions, which overwhelm whole families in one common ruin, which visit the crime of parents on the children, which destroy indiscriminately those whom tender years or infirmity render equally incapable of offending?”

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