No Comment, Quotation — December 8, 2007, 12:00 am

Livy on the Rise of the Republic and of Civic Liberty

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Liberi iam hinc populi Romani res pace belloque gestas, annuos magistratus, imperiaque legum potentiora quam hominum peragam. Quæ libertas ut lætior esset proximi regis superbia fecerat. . .

Quid enim futurum fuit, si illa pastorum conuenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela inuiolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta, soluta regio metu agitari coepta esset tribuniciis procellis, et in aliena urbe cum patribus serere certamina, priusquam pignera coniugum ac liberorum caritasque ipsius soli, cui longo tempore adsuescitur, animos eorum consociasset? Dissipatae res nondum adultæ discordia forent, quas fouit tranquilla moderatio imperii eoque nutriendo perduxit ut bonam frugem libertatis maturis iam uiribus ferre possent. Libertatis autem originem inde magis quia annuum imperium consulare factum est quam quod deminutum quicquam sit ex regia potestate numeres. Omnia iura, omnia insignia primi consules tenuere; id modo cautum est ne, si ambo fasces haberent, duplicatus terror uideretur.

Henceforth I shall tell the deeds of a people, the Romans, who valued liberty first, and of their accomplishments both in peace and war, the magistracies that passed from year to year–the story of a state in which no man stood above the law. They valued their liberty so much precisely because their last king had been so great a tyrant. . .

For what would have happened, had that crowd of shepherds and strangers, outcast from their own peoples, found, under the protection of an absolute sanctuary, either freedom, or at least impunity for former offences, and, freed from the fear of the king’s authority, had begun to be attracted to the rising power of the tribunes, and had begun to challenge the fathers in a strange city, before the pledges of wives and children, and love for the land itself, to which people become accustomed
only by the passage of time, had united their attentions? Their condition,
not yet matured, would have been destroyed by discord; but the
tranquillizing moderation of the government so fostered their condition, and by proper nourishment brought it to such perfection, that, when their strength was now developed, they were able to bring
forth the wholesome fruits of liberty. The first beginnings of
liberty, however, one may date from this period, and most remarkably they arise from the limitation placed on the consular authority–by its being made annual, rather than a circumscription of the power of the kings. The first consuls kept all the privileges and outward signs of authority, care only being taken to prevent the terror appearing doubled, should both have the fasces at the same time.

Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita lib ii, cap i (ca. 5 BCE) in: Loeb Library ed. vol. 114, pp. 118-20 (S.H. transl.)

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Ashley arrived for her prenatal appointment at Black Hills Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Rapid City, South Dakota, wearing a black zip-up hoodie and Converse sneakers.1 To explain her absence from work that morning — a Tuesday in April 2015 — she had told a co-worker that she was having “female issues.” She was twenty-five years old and eight weeks pregnant. She had been separated from her husband, with whom she had a five-year-old son, for the better part of a year. The guy who’d gotten her pregnant was someone she’d met at the gym, and he’d made it abundantly clear that he wanted nothing more to do with her. Ashley found herself hoping that the doctor would discover some kind of fetal defect, so that her decision would be easier. She glanced across the waiting room at a television playing a birth-control ad and laughed darkly. “Jesus, Lord, it would be so nice if someone just pushed me down a flight of stairs.”

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The baby was due in November, when Ashley, who was a nurse, hoped to be enrolled in a graduate program to become a nurse practitioner. Getting pregnant as a teenager had forced her to put that dream on hold, but she had thought that she was finally ready; she had even submitted her application shortly before the March 15 deadline. For the first time in her adult life, Ashley felt as if her plans were coming together. Then she missed her period.

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