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Des divers ouvrages que j’avois sur le chantier, celui que je méditois depuis longtems, dont je m’occupois avec le plus de gout, auquel je voulois travailler toute ma vie, et qui devoit selon moi mettre le sceau à ma réputation étoit mes Institutions politiques… mes vues s’étoient beaucoup étendues par l’étude historique de la morale. J’avois vu que tout tenoit radicalement à la politique, et que, de quelque façon qu’on s’y prit, aucun peuple ne seroit jamais que ce que la nature de son Gouvernement le feroit être; ainsi cette grande question du meilleur Gouvernement possible me paroissoit se reduire à celle-ci. Quelle est la nature de Gouvernement propre à former un Peuple le plus vertueux, le plus éclairé, le plus sage, le meilleur enfin à prendre ce mot dans son plus grand sens. J’avois cru voir que cette question tenoit de bien près à cette autre-ci, si même elle en étoit différente. Quel est le Gouvernement qui par sa nature se tient toujours le plus près de la loi? De là, qu’est-ce que la loi?
Of the various works that I had in progress, which engaged me the longest in contemplation, and at which I worked with the greatest satisfaction, upon which I would have gladly worked my entire life, and which would have placed the seal upon my reputation was my Institutions politiques… my views had been greatly extended by the study of the history of manners. I had come to see that everything was connected radically to politics, and that, no matter what course one followed, no people could be of a nature other than that which its government gave it; and thus this great question of the best possible government seemed to me to be reduced to just that. What is the nature of the right government which will create the most virtuous, the most enlightened, the most wise people, in the end to take this word in its greatest sense. I had thought this question close to another even if it was different. What is the government which by its nature adheres today most closely to the law? And from that, what is the law?
–Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Confessions, bk ix (1770) in: Œuvres complètes vol. 1, pp. 404-05 (Pléiade ed. 1959)(S.H. transl.)
More from Scott Horton:
Six Questions — October 18, 2014, 8:00 pm
Nathaniel Raymond on CIA interrogation techniques.
On a Friday evening in January, a thousand people at the annual California Native Plant Society conference in San Jose settled down to a banquet and a keynote speech delivered by an environmental historian named Jared Farmer. His chosen topic was the eucalyptus tree and its role in California’s ecology and history. The address did not go well. Eucalyptus is not a native plant but a Victorian import from Australia. In the eyes of those gathered at the San Jose DoubleTree, it qualified as “invasive,” “exotic,” “alien” — all dirty words to this crowd, who were therefore convinced that the tree was dangerously combustible, unfriendly to birds, and excessively greedy in competing for water with honest native species.
In his speech, Farmer dutifully highlighted these ugly attributes, but also quoted a few more positive remarks made by others over the years. This was a reckless move. A reference to the tree as “indigenously Californian” elicited an abusive roar, as did an observation that without the aromatic import, the state would be like a “home without its mother.” Thereafter, the mild-mannered speaker was continually interrupted by boos, groans, and exasperated gasps. Only when he mentioned the longhorn beetle, a species imported (illegally) from Australia during the 1990s with the specific aim of killing the eucalyptus, did he earn a resounding cheer.
Percentage of Britons who cannot name the city that provides the setting for the musical Chicago:
An Australian entrepreneur was selling oysters raised in tanks laced with Viagra.
A tourism company in Australia announced a service that will allow users to take the “world’s biggest selfies,” and a Texas man accidentally killed himself while trying to pose for a selfie with a handgun.
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“Shelby is waiting for something. He himself does not know what it is. When it comes he will either go back into the world from which he came, or sink out of sight in the morass of alcoholism or despair that has engulfed other vagrants.”