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No more than any other political method does democracy always produce the same results or promote the same interests or ideals. Rational allegiance to it thus presupposes not only a schema of hyper-rational values but also certain states of society in which democracy can be
expected to work in ways we approve. Propositions about the working of democracy are meaningless without reference to given times, places and situations and so, of course, are anti-democratic arguments.
This after all is only obvious. It should not surprise, still less shock, anyone. For it has nothing to do with the fervor or dignity of democratic conviction in any given situation. To realize the relative validity of one’s convictions and yet stand for them unflinchingly is what distinguishes a civilized man from a barbarian.
–Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, p. 243 (1943)
This passage from Schumpeter’s magnum opus demonstrates the depth and quality of his commitment to democracy, but also his essentially Weberian understanding of the duties of political actors in a democratic state. That is particularly the case for the close, “to realize the relative validity of one’s convictions and yet stand for them unflinchingly is what distinguishes a civilized man from a barbarian.” He is drawing on core ideas of Politics as a Vocation, and particularly the notion that a democratic political leader must embrace and expound ideals that motivate and inspire, even if the political exigencies of certain circumstances cause him to compromise them. These convictions are nevertheless essential and valid, and a democratic society that does not have them will sink into barbarity. These words are heartfelt. They reflect Schumpeter’s own experiences in his native Austria, torn apart by political strife and dragged ultimately to Anschluß and self-destruction, and his view of America as a state which successfully managed and reconciled these tensions–a stable and mature democracy, though certainly one with its own challenges.
Listen to Erich Wolfgang Korngold’s Symphony in F Sharp Major, op. 40 (1947). Like Schumpeter, Korngold was born in Moravia, made his career first in Austria and then emigrated to the United States, where he achieved success as Hollywood’s leading composer. In this work, dedicated to the memory of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Korngold salutes America as the promise and protector of democracy.
More from Scott Horton:
Conversation — March 30, 2016, 3:44 pm
Joseph Hickman discusses his new book, The Burn Pits, which tells the story of thousands of U.S. soldiers who, after returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, have developed rare cancers and respiratory diseases.
i. stand with israel
I listen to a lot of conservative talk radio. Confident masculine voices telling me the enemy is everywhere and victory is near — I often find it affirming: there’s a reason I don’t think that way. Last spring, many right-wing commentators made much of a Bloomberg poll that asked Americans, “Are you more sympathetic to Netanyahu or Obama?” Republicans picked the Israeli prime minister over their own president, 67 to 16 percent. There was a lot of affected shock that things had come to this. Rush Limbaugh said of Netanyahu that he wished “we had this kind of forceful moral, ethical clarity leading our own country”; Mark Levin described him as “the leader of the free world.” For a few days there I yelled quite a bit in my car.
The one conservative radio show I do find myself enjoying is hosted by Dennis Prager. At the Thanksgiving dinner of American radio personalities (Limbaugh is your jittery brother-in-law, Michael Savage is your racist uncle, Hugh Hewitt is Hugh Hewitt) Dennis Prager is the turkey-carving patriarch trying to keep the conversation moderately high-minded. While Prager obviously doesn’t like liberals — “The gaps between the left and right on almost every issue that matters are in fact unbridgeable,” he has said — he often invites them onto his show for debate, which is rare among right-wing hosts. Yet his gently exasperated take on the Obama–Netanyahu matchup was among the least charitable: “Those who do not confront evil resent those who do.”
Average number of Americans who are injured by chain saws each year:
A farmer in Kenya bit a python who tried to eat him.
A former prison in Philadelphia that has served as a horror-movie set was being prepared as a detention center for protesters arrested at the upcoming Democratic National Convention, and presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump fired his campaign manager.
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“Matt was happy enough to sustain himself on the detritus of a world he saw as careening toward self-destruction, and equally happy to scam a government he despised. 'I’m glad everyone’s so wasteful,' he told me. 'It supports my lifestyle.'”