New books — From the August 2015 issue

New Books

Download Pdf
Read Online

Before Europe orientalized its eastern colonies, the Jew orientalized himself. Living in exile — amid the empires of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, and the four Islamic caliphates — he yearned for Zion: the homeland forever lost, the cradle of an identity forever idealized. “My heart is in the East — / And I am at the edge of the West” is how the predicament was put by Yehudah Ha-Levi, who wrote in Hebrew in twelfth-century Muslim Spain about Jerusalem under the yoke of the Crusaders. The poem, among the most famous in the Jewish canon, proceeds by questions —

How can I possibly taste what I eat?

How could it please me?

How can I keep my promise

or ever fulfill my vow,

when Zion is held by Edom

and I am bound by Arabia’s chains?

 — all of which raise the essential Jewish question: What does it mean to esteem that which you don’t, or only barely, know? Or, phrased another way: What happens when Zion doesn’t live up to its poem?

“#356 Palm,” by Tokihiro Sato. Courtesy the artist and Haines Gallery, San Francisco

“#356 Palm,” by Tokihiro Sato. Courtesy the artist and Haines Gallery, San Francisco

In 1140, after the death of his wife, the sixtysomething-year-old Ha-Levi retired from his medical practice and sailed for Egypt, his people’s former house of bondage. From there, according to legend, he retraced the route of the Exodus, to the foot of the ruined Temple in Jerusalem, where he was trampled to death by an Arab on horseback. And so the quest to experience a metaphor became a metaphor itself: the Jew finally arrives in the land he’s always dreamed of, and promptly perishes. Is there any better summary of the anxieties of Zionism? Is there any better joke?

Paradox, futility, the veil dance between the imaginary and the actual, homesickness for a foreign or nonexistent home: these are the themes of Yoel Hoffmann, the greatest living writer in Israel — a country that appears in his work as a strange, vagabond mind-state bordered, roughly, by Transylvania, China, and Japan. Hoffmann was born in Transylvania, in 1937, and though he arrived in Mandate Palestine the following year, his true Zion lay farther east. In the 1960s, he made his pilgrimage. Even in Kyoto, where he studied at a Zen Buddhist monastery and obtained his doctorate at the city’s university, he longed for Kyoto. On returning to Israel, he taught East Asian studies at the University of Haifa and translated texts from Chinese and Japanese into Hebrew and English, including the koans of Masters Joshu and Kido and a landmark volume of jisei, the last verses monks write before dying or committing ritual suicide.

Hoffmann found his way to fiction only after fifty, publishing a succession of enigmatically nostalgic texts that sought to revive the mystical literature of European Jewry through the poetry and parables of Zen. In Hoffmann’s hands, these two traditions, separated by alphabets, languages, continents, and centuries, seem kindred if not continuous: both are full of anecdotes featuring pious figures — barefoot monks, bearded rabbis — who ask or are asked questions to which the only answer is a slap, a laugh, or a nonsense retort intended to reorient the senses.

Here’s an episode from Hoffmann’s translation of Joshu (a.k.a. Zhaozhou Congshen), the ninth-century Zen master of Bailin, China:

A monk asked, “Why is it that an outsider is not allowed to take over?”

Joshu said, “Who are you?”

The monk said, “Enan.”

Joshu said, “What is your question?”

Enan asked, “Why is it that an outsider is not allowed to take over?”

Joshu patted his head.

Joshu’s point seems to be that the very awareness of a hierarchy, in which Enan is a disciple and Joshu a master, will prevent Enan from becoming a master himself. This lesson acquires an explicitly moral aspect in the Hasidic lore of eighteenth-century Russia:

The people of a certain city begged the Baal Shem Tov to force his disciple Yehiel Mikhal to accept the position of rabbi, which they had offered him. The Baal Shem Tov ordered him to accept, but he persisted in his refusal. “If you don’t obey me,” said the Master, “you will lose this world and the next world too.” “Even if I lose both worlds,” his disciple answered, “I won’t accept what does not befit me.” “Then take my blessing instead,” the Master said, “because you have resisted temptation.”

Both anecdotes frustrate commentary — the Buddhist story by embracing emptiness, the Hasidic by embracing goodness, humility, God. Hoffmann uses the same rhetoric, devoid of any instructional purpose, to write novels — or what his publishers insist on calling novels, though the ten volumes that have appeared to date read more like excavated fragments of a scrambled canon, a literature compiled from a Europe that Hoffmann never experienced and an Asia that was never his birthright. His fiction retains all the inconsistency, and therefore all the authority, of the religious texts on which they’re based: references to the Nazi camps suddenly break off, as if to indicate lacunae; memories of geishas recur, but with conflicting details. Such glitches come to seem like sites of hermetic meaning available only to the adept.

Take this early chapter from Hoffmann’s latest book, Moods (New Directions, $15.95), in the reverentially irreverent translation of the poet Peter Cole (whose rendition of Ha-Levi is quoted above):

I remember things that happened in an empty building (which is to say, one they hadn’t yet finished building) in Ramat Gan, in the fifties.

Then too (as now) legs were the principal thing. The world was full of legs of all sorts and there was movement in space. Someone — Ezra Danischevsky — said to me once: I want to be an elevator repairman (you can imagine the motion and its various directions).

In that (empty) building, a woman who’s now seventy-four (if she’s not dead) took off her dress.

In the next chapter Hoffmann narrates an encounter between a man, “most likely” named Nehemiah, and a French prostitute in a basement apartment in Paris. Later, he admits: “I too (Yoel Hoffmann, that is) once went like that down steps to a place where a French woman waited.” Subsequent sections concern Hoffmann’s father’s Schaffhausen watch (“which wasn’t removed even when he fell into a coma”) and his aunt Edith (whose final word was noch, German for “another”). It’s only nine chapters in that Nehemiah returns, or is explained:

I could write about how the Bible that the principal gave me at the end of eighth grade saved my life (it was in the pocket of my army vest and the bullet went into it up to the Book of Nehemiah) or, how, as though in an American movie, I went to the wedding of a girl I was in love with once and at the last minute etcetera. Which is to say, a bona fide story with plot twists and intrigue and an ending cut off like a salami (to keep it modern).

Hoffmann, of course, won’t write anything like that story; instead he discusses psychoanalysis, one hand clapping, physics, and Gaza. Meanwhile, the connections that have been gestured at — between Nehemiah the prophet and Nehemiah as Hoffmann; between the woman in Ramat Gan and the woman in Paris; between the dying father’s watch and the dying aunt’s noch; and between the elevator and the stairs and the stand-alone legs and the circumcised salami — remain suspended, uninterpretable: as present through their absence as Zion is in Israel.

Previous PageNext Page
1 of 2

You are currently viewing this article as a guest. If you are a subscriber, please sign in. If you aren't, please subscribe below and get access to the entire Harper's archive for only $23.99/year.

= Subscribers only.
Sign in here.
Subscribe here.

Download Pdf

More from Joshua Cohen:

Readings From the July 2018 issue

Hat Tips

New books From the December 2015 issue

New Books

New books From the October 2015 issue

New Books

Get access to 169 years of
Harper’s for only $23.99

United States Canada


October 2019


You’ve read your free article from Harper’s Magazine this month.

*Click “Unsubscribe” in the Weekly Review to stop receiving emails from Harper’s Magazine.